explain leading problems of inclusive education

Inclusive education is educating all students in age-appropriate general education classes in their neighborhood schools, with high-quality instruction, interventions, and supports to succeed in the core curriculum. Worryingly, education has thus far been a very low priority in humanitarian aid to countries in conflict — and less than 3% of global humanitarian assistance was allocated to education in 2016. ), Basic provisions and implementation measures. From an Inclusive Education perspective, Sajan and children like him add another dimension to classroom diversity, one which teachers are ill- prepared for. Please enter your TOI password associated with your account. The barriers she encountered were attitudinal: the school authorities just could not understand how a child would get through school without being able to write. For the first time, the Act made it mandatory to include children with disability in the mainstream educational system. Students and their parents participate in setting learning goals and take part in decisions that affect them. This discussion paper explains that much more needs to be done for children with disabilities living in situations of armed conflict, and offers evidence-based recommendations. The subsequent enactment of two progressive legislative initiatives - the Right to Education Act and The Rights of Persons with Disability Act - reflects a policy shift from a welfare-based approach to one that emphasises human rights. Born premature, Kanika was diagnosed with cerebral palsy at birth. The website of the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has links to documents on ‘learning outcomes’ for elementary schools, a guidebook on index to inclusion, and suggestions for ‘accommodation and modifications’ in assessment. “To strive to give something back to society in a spirit of gratitude is the proper way for human beings to live.” - Japanese Buddhist philosopher Daisaku Ikeda. Some of the critical aspects of the objective of attaining quality of learning are differentiated curriculum, pedagogical innovation, examination reform and, most of all, teacher preparation. Worldwide, these children are among the most likely to be out of school. Like all children, children with disabilities have ambitions and dreams for their futures. Inclusive Education is a relatively new concept in the Indian subcontinent, which has been grappling with the enrolment of children into the school system. Forlin C., Ming-Gon J.L., Routledge, 2008.12 Naidu, A, ‘Collaboration and Dialogue: The Essence of An Inclusive Practice’, paper presented at the Conference on Inclusion in Education: The Implementa-tion of Article 24 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, University of Hong Kong, 200913 Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 http://www.advocatekhoj.com/library/bareacts/rightofchildrentofree/index...14 Singhal, N, Education of children with disabilities in India and Pakistan: An analysis of developments since 2000 (2015) http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002324/232424e.pdf15 Sharma, S, ‘NCERT brings out learning indicators for classes 1 to VIII’, The Indian Express, July 28, 2015 http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/ncert-brings-out-learning-...16 Snyder C.R., Lopez S.J., Pedrotti J.T. Teacher self- reflection goes a long way to create a nurturing classroom. Sajan and others like him will benefit from early intervention and plenty of encouragement. This will not lead to respecting the evolving capacity of the individual, because we don’t focus on the factors that restrict the development of the person in the given environment,’ says disability rights activist Meenakshi Balasubramanian, Coordinator Projects, Equals: Centre for Promotion of Social Justice. Sajan is a reluctant learner who struggles to transition to school every day. The RTE mentions quality of learning based on child-centred and activity- based curriculum, and assessment methods must also reflect the change. 1 This Unit is a slightly shortened and adapted version of two documents: IIEP. In encouraging and supporting human diversity in the classroom, schools build on humanistic aspects of life, which lay the foundation for the acceptance of differences. But progress comes slowly. It is a process and not an end product of a series of interventions. She achieved her development milestones (with a two- year delay) with intensive physical and speech therapies. Robbed of their right to learn, children with disabilities are often denied the chance to take part in their communities, the workforce and the decisions that most affect them. This Article is brought to you for free and open access by CORE Scholar. Disability is the single most serious barrier to education across the globe. Goal 4: Quality education. The idea of the child with disability going to mainstream schools, along with other children marginalised by poverty, gender and cultural factors, was gaining momentum. Nearly 50 per cent of children with disabilities are not in school, compared to only 13 per cent of their peers without disabilities. Following Barton (2008, p6) I believe, that, like disability, the problems caused by inequalities such as exclusion, and the need for an inclusive society and the education system, are public issues “in which discriminatory social structures, social relationships, and social processes need … All these are now listed as interventions in the Act in Sections 17 and 18 under the ‘duties of educational institutions’ and ‘specific measures to promote inclusive education’. Under the new law, Fatima has been enrolled at a school about a kilometre away from her home. Disability rights activists ask if social barriers are being overlooked. inclusive education for students with disability internationally, and specifically within Australia. The teacher gives him daily homework to improve his writing and numeracy skills to enable him to meet the achievements standards of his class. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities adopts a broad categorization of persons with disabilities and reaffirms that all persons with all types of disabilities must enjoy all human rights and fundamental freedoms. But Attitudes toward children with disabilities, as well as a lack of resources to accommodate them, compound the challenges they face in accessing education. It has been accepted for inclusion in Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education … Simply put, both students with and without disabilities learn more. Sajan loves to draw, play with building blocks, creating amazing building designs and play on the climbing frame and slide. Ensuring that each individual has an equal opportunity for educational progress remains a challenge worldwide. Kanika’s story illustrates the role a school can play in the inclusion of a child with benchmark disability with high support needs. At the school level, teachers must be trained, buildings must be refurbished and students must receive accessible learning materials. Are teachers today prepared in the basic practices of curriculum adaptation, collaborative skills and Universal Design to build a new inclusive school culture? inclusive education as defined within the Education for Persons with Special Educational Needs (EPSEN) Act (2004). IIEP. Enter your Email Address here to receive a link to change your password. With curricular adaptation, Sajan could learn to develop his attention span using the activities he loves, working on the same learning outcomes as the rest of the class. Section 21 of the RTE Act invests the mandatory School Management Committee with the responsibility to create a school development plan. As a Special Educator trained in the 1990s during the run-up to the World Education Forum, Dakar, 2000, I was thrilled to discover the global interest in Inclusive Education. When kids are found eligible for special education services, it’s common for their families to worry that they’ll be placed in a different classroom than other kids their age.But most kids who are eligible for special education spend the majority of their time in general education classrooms. Following the enactment of the RTE, Fatima was eligible to join any school in her neighbourhood. themselves with the problems which children present in the classroom rather than examining the extent to which their own practices exclude. An important development under the purview of the RPWD Act, which has tremendous significance for formal schools, is the inclusion of 21 different types of disability, fourteen more than the original seven in the PWD Act. Inclusive education and inclusive classrooms are gaining steam because there is so much research-based evidence around the benefits. Given the school’s progressive history, curricular accommodations such as use of teaching assistants, reduced portions, extra time for writing are part of the class routine. In this article, we will review the sections relating to Inclusive Education in these legislative initiatives, as well as reflect on the implications for the quality of learning. Some of the examples that will within the framework of the Act as ‘Reasonable Accommodations for inclusive school development are: • transportation for child with high support needs and attendants, • Accessible buildings, campuses, toilets and other facilities, • Pedagogical support for children with learning disability, • Individualised support to maximise academic and social development, • Modified textbooks: for example, the Barkha Series, a supplementary graded reader services published by NCERT, • Alternative and Augmentative Communication systems for children with speech and language impairments, • Modifications in the examination system: extra time, use of computers, scribes. The Learning Curve is a newsletter from the Azim Premji Foundation. His teacher needs to give him activities that include play in learning, shorter-duration tasks and tangible appreciation for achievement. How is Australia sitting internationally in relation to the extent students with Educators continue to debate and determine the best ways to teach students with disabilities. Using cross-nationally comparable and nationally representative data from 18 surveys in 15 countries, this paper investigates how disability affects school attendance. provincial education authorities, engaged in a large-scale programme to field-test new ideas and practices towards a system of education that can include all learners, regardless of their diverse needs. As the UNCRPD emphasises, the problem of disability lies not in the person but in the ’barriers’ imposed by the environment. To close the education gap for children with disabilities, UNICEF supports government efforts to foster and monitor inclusive education systems. ‘We slot people at a particular level based on our understanding of the person’s impairment. Overcoming this requires educational reform and progressive leadership that encourages learning and participation for all. Discuss what you mean by terms such as critical thinking and analysis to ensure students understand what this means in practice. An analysis and policy discussion is included of this evidence in regard to three key research questions: 1. • Finally, reading the Acts together, we will consider the UNCRPD concept of Universal Design to make schools inclusive. In the new Act, the basic requirements of attenders, transportation, physical and communication barriers will all be considered as a form of reasonable accommodation. The fact that the new law is UNCRPD-compliant is transformative in its philosophical underpinnings and shifts the focus from social welfare to human rights. Subsequently, the RPWD Act, 2016 came into force, replacing the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act (PWD Act), 1995. What appears to be a major in hurdle in the path to finding the proper method for inclusion is the fact that very few major policy making groups have addressed the issue in decades. For example, by contributing to a group discussion, students will build their communication and critical-thinking skills. According to the review, there is evidence to suggest that there is a link between inclusive education and social inclusion in the areas of education… Children with disabilities face multiple forms of discrimination which leads to their exclusion from society and school. http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Index%20English.pdf. • Under Section 19, a child is entitled to ‘full-time education of equitable quality in a formal school satisfying essential Norms and Standards.’. The last decade saw a shift in perspective in respect of the education of children with disability - from an approach that emphasises welfare to one that emphasises human rights, following the ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disability (UNCRPD) by the Indian Government. Maximising flexibility in teaching and classroom practice is an area which needs further research. Second, through the case study of Kanika (below), listing the practical aspects of inclusion. Kanika participates along with all her classmates in art, dance and drama activities and is perceived as a student who succeeds in school. Respectful dialogue through a participatory engagement that helps to develop sensitised personnel, differentiated instructional strategies, modes of alternative communication, active involvement of parents and the community and an administration committed to the advancement of inclusive education is critical. These are: • respect for difference and acceptance of PWD as part of human diversity and humanity, • disability as an evolving and dynamic concept. Dialogue and self-reflection within the school community will lead to a better understanding of the implementation process. Unlike the PWD Act, 1995, the RPWD Act, 2009 provides for Inclusive Education, which it defines as ‘a system of education wherein students with and without disability learn together and the system of teaching and learning is suitably adapted to meet the learning needs of different types of students with disability.’ It also elaborates the basic requirements and the means of implementation. Think Inclusive reported on a 2001 study that examined “academic progress for students with disabilities in general education and self-contained classrooms over two years. Inclusive education allows students of all backgrounds to learn and grow side by side, to the benefit of all. ‘Access to Quality Education’ implies the creation of environments that enable a child to evolve and grow to full potential. http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Madurai/advantages-and-disadvantages... http://www.advocatekhoj.com/library/bareacts/rightofchildrentofree/index... http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002324/232424e.pdf. The Consultative Forum is a statutory committee established under EPSEN (2004) for the purpose of assisting and advising the Council on matters relating to its functions. However, contradictions arise owing to inadequate self-reflection over attitudes and insufficient opportunity to collaborate among stakeholders: teachers (general and specialist), parents, children and administrators. Five-year-old Odai, who has a speech disorder, attends a UNICEF-supported awareness session in Jordan on the rights of children with disabilities. Leading SDG 4 - Education 2030 Education is a human right and a force for sustainable development and peace. Unlike the PWD Act, the preamble of the RPWD Act lays down the ‘principles of empowerment of persons with disability’. References:1 Booth, T and Ainscow, M. Index for Inclusion: Developing learning and partici-pation in schools (2002) http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Index%20English.pdf2 Curricular Adaptations for Children with Special Needs, Confluence, February 2016, Vol 18, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan http://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/document-reports/Conflu...3 Duncan, R. Universal Design http://universaldesign.ie/What-is-Universal-Design/Conference-Proceeding...Perspectives/4 Gohain, Manash Pratim, ‘NCERT Books to make classroom inclusive’, The Times of India, April 22, 2017 https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/ncert-books-to-make-class...5 Ikeda, D. http://www.ikedaquotes.org6 Including Children with Special Needs, Primary Stage, NCERT, 2014 http://www.ncert.nic.in/pdf_files/SpecialNeeds.pdf7 Julka, A, Index for Developing Inclusive Schools, NCERT http://www.ncert.nic.in/departments/nie/degsn/pdf_files/INDEX%20FINAL%20...8 KPMG, Assessing the Impact of the Right to Education Act, March 2016 https://assets.kpmg.com/content/dam/kpmg/pdf/2016/03/Assessing-the-impac...9 Learning Indicators and Learning Outcomes at the Elementary Stage, NCERT 2014.http://www.dsek.nic.in/Misc/learningoutcome.pdf10 Mohamed Imranullah S. ‘Advantages and disadvantages of RTE Act’, The Hindu, 21 May 2013 http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Madurai/advantages-and-disadvantages...11 Naidu, A, Collaboration in the Era of Inclusion, Chapter on Reform, Inclusion and Teacher Education, Ed. For the first time, children with autism, specific learning disability and speech and language disability qualify for Inclusive Education. The concept of ‘evolving capacities’ faces a similar fate for children with benchmark disability with high support needs (with 40 per cent disability) who require intensive support to carry out daily activities. They face persistent barriers to education stemming from discrimination, stigma and the routine failure of decision makers to incorporate disability in school services. As more children with physical, intellectual, emotional, and other impairments learn alongside typical children, teachers continue to discover how … Disability rights activists are concerned that children with high support needs are enrolled in school, but end up in home-based programs under the SSA. An estimated 93 million children worldwide live with disabilities. http://www.ncert.nic.in/departments/nie/degsn/pdf_files/INDEX%20FINAL%20... https://assets.kpmg.com/content/dam/kpmg/pdf/2016/03/Assessing-the-impac... http://www.dsek.nic.in/Misc/learningoutcome.pdf. Martin Seligman, the father of contemporary Positive Psychology, says, ‘Positive inclusive schooling is based on the values of freedom, trust and respect for human diversity.’ Tony Booth, author of Index for Inclusion, also emphasises the role of values in the democratic and participatory practice of Inclusion, which recognises teachers and learners equally. Collaboration is the cornerstone of Inclusive Education. Under the RTE, a child like Fatima, between the ages of 6 and 14 years, has a right to be admitted into a neighbourhood school to access free and compulsory education. • First, let us look at the RTE Act from the perspective of Inclusive Education, disability and access to quality education. This systemic entrenchment in welfare has resulted in the preservation of segregated services even within the flagship programme for the Education For All Campaign, the SSA. Sustainable Development Goal 4 on Education and the Education 2030 Framework for Action emphasize inclusion and equity as laying the foundations for quality education.. In a truly inclusive setting, every child feels safe and has a sense of belonging. • Examples of successful experiences in different regions of the world in which parents and social organizations have acted in support of inclusive education. Article 21-A of the Constitution guarantees education as a fundamental right and specifies that the state shall provide free and compulsory education for all children in the 6-14 years age group, although it was not until 2009 that the RTE Act was passed by Parliament. Since then, my idea of Inclusive Education has become aligned with the philosophy of the Index, which is: all students and staff have to be valued, and all efforts made to increase their participation and collaboration in school communities. Inclusive Education is about Whole School Development. Here are some ideas to encourage inclusive schooling: • assess schools using tools like the Index for Inclusion, • create opportunities for teachers, administrative staff, the school community to interact with persons with disabilities, • frame guidelines for collaboration between teachers, special educators and teaching assistants, • develop training programs promoting collaborative teamwork, • allocate resources for assistive technology and communication, • collaborate with disability resource centres to support mainstream schools, • conduct access audits of the school environment, • train teachers through pre-service and in-service programs in differentiated instruction, cooperative learning, curricular accommodations, • encourage co-teaching in the inclusive classroom • encourage teachers to meet regularly to discuss best practices, • adapt curriculums and assessment techniques. Her practice has evolved to reflect this as she constantly strives to weave together therapy, education, and alternative communication into a fun-filled process of learning for her students. However, on admission she was placed in a special unit and was to remain there till she had gained mastery over the English and Tamil alphabets. Under Section 12(1) (c) of the RTE Act, 25 percent of seats in private schools are reserved for children from disadvantaged sections of society. The most progressive feature of the RPWD Act is the ‘Universal Design’ concept promoted by the UNCRPD. Measuring the success of inclusive education should go beyond merely If the curriculum is truly child-centred and child-friendly, as the Act claims it will be and if the environment is free of fear, anxiety and trauma, Fatima can learn along with her peers, irrespective of her inability to write. This will set the precedent for inclusion of children like Sajan. In India, the 86th Constitutional Amendment guarantees education as a fundamental right to all and this includes the child with a disability. The three cases studies presented in the essay demonstrate that children fall through the cracks of a fragmented system, despite laws recognising disability as an element of human diversity. Build a new teachers of India account underpinnings and shifts the focus social... This goes against the spirit of the sustainable development and peace transition to school every day he is neurologically. Progressive feature of the sustainable development and peace open access by CORE Scholar, children with disabilities Sagar,,... 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